16 Maret 2018

Latihan Mandiri UAS - The Topic Sentence

Identifying the most important sentence in a paragraph – the Topic Sentence

In the texts below, underline the sentence that proposes the central idea of the paragraph.

Paragraph A

The "Star Trek" television series and motion pictures are exciting to watch, but they violate several key laws of physics. The first is the speed that the spaceships travel. The Enterprise and other spaceships travel faster than the speed of light, which is physically impossible. A second impossibility is the way stars pass. When the crew looks out the windows of the spaceships, the stars appear much as they do when we look at them in the sky. In reality, the speed that the spaceships are traveling would make the stars appear as a blinding light show, with stars spread out in a rainbow of colors.

Paragraph B

A growing number of people are expected to know how to use computers to satisfy the demands of their job. Without proper training, workers may get injuries of the hand, wrist, and back. Working at the computer demands proper angles. The top of the monitor should be at eye level so that the center of the screen is viewed slightly downward. The keyboard should be on a flat surface, with one's arms relaxed, loose, and at a ninety-degree angle. Forearms and hands should be parallel to the floor. The back should be angled slightly to the rear to increase blood circulation and reduce compression of the spine. The chair should fit the curve of the lower back, with the seat angling forward slightly to reduce pressure on the spine.

Paragraph C

Sports clothing is big business. Each year Americans spend over $2 billion on caps, t-shirts, jackets, banners and the like showing the team they support. While team clothing sells best in the city where the franchise resides, some teams sell better than others. In basketball. Chicago Bulls uniforms are most popular, even after the retirement of their most famous player, Michael Jordan. In baseball, the Colorado Rockies sell more t-shirts than anyone else. Their research showed that people would buy a shirt that featured purple, silver, and black colors. They may have followed the advice of marketing experts who advised them to follow football's number one seller, the Raiders, whose "silver-and-black" venue have attracted fans for decades.

English III Homework 2B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

The main idea of a paragraph

From the three alternatives circle the one that explains the MAIN IDEA of the paragraph.

Paragraph A
A national contest to find the worst boss in the nation had some remarkable candidates. One person nominated a boss who had a sign on his desk saying "people are animals." Another named a boss who liked to choke and bite his employees. And the winner was a boss who would not let his employees go to a funeral unless they produced a death notice that was printed in the local paper.
1. This paragraph is about a national contest of bosses.
2. The paragraph tells us about a contest to find the worst boss in the nation.
3. The paragraph talks about a very bad boss.

Paragraph B
Hot tubs have become popular places to relax and relieve muscle tension. However, if you use a hot tub, you should be careful. Dipping your body in hot water makes your heart beat faster. This can be a problem for people with high blood pressure. The hot water also raises your body temperature. This can cause a loss of important body fluids. And five to ten minutes in a hot tub burns off blood sugar. This can be harmful for people with diabetes.
1. This paragraph explains what five to ten minutes in a hot tub can do for us.
2. The paragraph tells us about the cautions for using a hot tub.
3. The paragraph gives advice to people with diabetes.

Paragraph C
The highest military honor in the land is to be named as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Only a few military men have held this post. The first Chairman was General Omar Bradley, who was nominated by President Harry Truman. Other Chairs have included General Maxwell Taylor, Admiral William Crowe, and General Colin Powell, who became famous for his handling of the Gulf War.
1. This paragraph is about the Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
2. The topic of this paragraph is General Colin Powell
3. The central idea of the paragraph is the highest military honor in the US.

Paragraph D
There are currently 5.5 billion people living in the world today. The population is expected to grow rapidly in coming years. By the year 2000, this figure is expected to grow to 6.3 billion. Twenty five years later, it is estimated that over 8 billion people will inhabit the planet. And in sixty years, population will be over 10 billion.
1. The main idea of the paragraph is population.
2. The topic of the paragraph is the number of people in the world today
3. The paragraph talks about the population in the year 2000.

English III Homework 3B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

The main idea of a paragraph

From the three alternatives circle the one that explains the MAIN IDEA of the paragraph.  ( paragraphs f – I , 2 pages )

Paragraph E
People who don't brush their teeth regularly usually have bad breath. There are other causes of bad breath. A throat infection is one source of bad breath. A sinus problem can also cause bad breath. Even too much coffee or alcohol can cause bad breath. And a stomach problem resulting in acid buildup can be a contributor, as well.

1. The paragraph is about bad breath.
2. This paragraph explains the causes of bad breath.
3. The central idea of the paragraph is mouth hygene.

Paragraph F
For the past fifty years, the most powerful telescope in the world was the Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar in rural southern California. Recently, it was replaced as the most powerful one by one installed in Hawaii. Plans are underway for even more powerful telescopes to be built around the globe. By the end of the decade, it is estimated that the Hale telescope will be only the seventh most powerful telescope in the world.

1. This paragraph is about telescopes
2. This paragraphs informs us about the world's most powerful telescopes.
3. The paragraph talks about the Hale telescope  in California.

Paragraph G
Making a home safe for toddlers requires careful planning. Here are ideas that experts have suggested. Appliances should have child locks so that children can't turn them on. Drawers in the bathroom and kitchen should have special latches that make it impossible for kids to open. All medicine and kitchen cleaning products should be stored in locked boxes such as fishing tackle boxes. Tables or counters with sharp edges should be rounded or fitted with thick vinyl pads. Electrical outlets should be covered with a spring-like mechanism that snaps shut when not in use. And gates that are screwed into the wall should be installed at the bottom and top of all flights of stairs.

1. The central idea of this paragraph is how to make a home safe for toddlers.
2. The principal idea in the paragraph is how to covering electrical outlets.
3. The most relevant message in this paragraph is modern houses.

Paragraph H
A centenarian is a person who is at least 100 years old. Centenarians are honored by television shows such as NBC's Today show, where, each day, a person at least 100 is shown on the weather report. When this practice first started a number of years ago, there were days when no one was honored. Recently, however, the number of centenarians has increased do dramatically that those shown are selected in a random drawing. The last census reported that there were over 35,000 centenarians living in the United States, more than double the number ten years ago. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that within a hundred years, there will be more than one million centenarians in the country.

1. The paragraph talks about the growing number of centenarians.
2. "Honoring centenarians on the Today show" is a good title for this paragraph.
3. The paragraph talks about the last national census.

Paragraph I
Publicists at the Disney Corporation are always on the lookout for natural yet unusual places where the image of Mickey Mouse's head and ears appear. So far there have been some extraordinary sightings of Mickey's silhouette in some remarkable places. A potato found in Nebraska looked just like Mickey. So does a tomato taken from New Jersey. A Texas longhorn cow has the familiar head and ears on its side. So does a pot-bellied pig in Chicago. A Michigan woman recently sent in a photo of her newborn baby's bottom. Clearly visible on the baby's backside is a birthmark that looks just like Mickey.

1. The central topic of the paragraph is Mickey Mouse.
2. The paragraph tells us about unusual places where Mickey Mouse's image has been found.
3. The paragraph is about the Disney Corporation.

English III Homework 4B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer


  1. Read the article and put these prepositions in the blanks: of, from, for or to

Giant pandas in danger
China's giant pandas have long been threatened with extinction, suffering (1) _______ low birth rates and human encroachment on their habitat. Now they are facing a new threat - starvation. China's state-run media says their favourite food, arrow bamboo, is beginning to die off. It is part (2) _______ a cycle that happens every sixty years and the new crop will take around ten years (3) _______ mature. Last time the bamboo bloomed was in the 1980s and then around two hundred and fifty giant pandas died (4) ________ starvation.
Now at least one nature reserve is trying (5) ________ move those animals at risk into new habitats or find them new sources (6) _________ food. In another blow for the giant panda, it is being reported that the endangered Tibetan antelope is being tipped as China's Olympic mascot, ahead of the panda. One official was even quoted as lobbying (7) ________ the antelope because it is more sporty than the other contenders. But panda supporters are holding out hope that Beijing's Olympic emblem could be composed of more than one animal.

B. Are these sentences TRUE or FALSE?

1. One of the causes for panda´s danger of extinction is they do not have babies too often.
2. Panda´s eat bamboo in cylces of sixty years.
3. One nature reserve is taking pandas to new places where they can find food.
4. The Tibetan antelope is a prettier animal than the panda..

C. What is this article about? Explain in your own words and in two or three sentences only.

  • threatened with extinction: in danger of dying out completely
  • human encroachment on their habitat: people moving into areas that are the natural environment for the panda
  • starvation: dying because of lack of food
  • blow: piece of bad news
  • is being tipped as: is likely to be
  • lobbying for: campaigning for, trying to convince the authorities about something

English III Homework 5B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

Reading 2

  1. Put the paragraphs in order .

1. ________ 2.  ________ 3.  ________  4. ________

New round-the-world record for yatchwoman
Despite the late hour and cold weather, more than a thousand people stood by the quayside watching the event on a giant screen. Some had travelled from Miss MacArthur's home county of Derbyshire.
The champagne flowed and there were smiles of relief. Ellen MacArthur had become the fastest person to sail solo around the world. It took her seventy-one days, fourteen-hours, eighteen-minutes and thirty-three seconds. She broke the record by more than a day.
At the end of her remarkable twenty-seven-thousand mile voyage, Ellen MacArthur spoke briefly to her team manager and close friend, Mark Turner. She told him she was overjoyed.
It was just before ten-thirty, in the darkness close to the French coast, that Ellen MacArthur made history. It was witnessed by the official adjudicator, Claude Breton, and relayed over loudspeaker to team headquarters.

  1. What do the numbers refer to. Write the words associated to them.
  1.  1,000 _________________
  2. 27,000 ______________________
  3. 71 ______________14 _____________18 _____________33 ______________

C. What is the article about? Explain in your own words and in one or two sentences only.

  • Overjoyed: delighted, very pleased and happy
  • The quayside: the place in a harbour where boats come in to load and unload.

If you want to listen to this article visit:

English III Homework 6B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

Reading 3

Read the article and answer the questions.
Smoking ban in Italy
The health minister Girolamo Sirchia gave a last-minute delay over the Christmas and New Year holidays, but he insisted that the smoking ban must go ahead. His aim is to protect not just smokers from the danger of lung cancer, but the whole population against the effects of passive smoking. Fifteen million Italians are regular smokers yet opinion polls suggest most people support the ban.
Controversy has arisen over the new anti-smoking law. Bar and restaurant owners face heavy fines of up to nearly three thousand dollars if any of their clients light up. Many say they will refuse to call the police to deal with transgressors who also face a three hundred and fifty dollar fine. But some landlords are already offering smokers alternative space in the open air.
The biggest revolution will be inside the Italian parliament. The speaker of the lower house insists that smoke-filled committee rooms will be a thing of the past, but more than one minister has threatened to continue to puff away at cabinet meetings.
    1. What is a “smoking ban”?
A. a special place to smoke     B. a prohibition to smoke        c. a monetary penalty
    1. Who is in favour of the prohibition?
A. 50 million Italians              B. bar owners              C. most people
    1. How much is the fine for transgressors of the ban?
A. $ 3500        B. $350           C. $35
    1. What have ministers said about the ban?
A. They will stop smoking.     B. They will continue smoking.  C. They will pay the fine

  1. Continue the following sentence and develop it into a paragraph.

I strongly believe that smoking _____________________________________________

  • passive smoking: breathing smoke from somebody else’s cigarettes
  • heavy fines: large financial penalties
  • light up: to begin to smoke a cigarette
  • transgressors:  people who do something against the law
  • landlords: owners (of a bar or a flat)
  • speaker: here: the person who is in charge of a parliament session
  • threatened: gave warning of something
  • to puff away: to smoke cigarettes, cigars, etc

English III Homework 7B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

Reading 4

Face Transplants

Scientists now believe that it is only a matter of time before the first human face transplant is performed. Doctors in different countries around the world have developed the surgical skills and anatomical knowledge to make the procedure possible. Such transplants could benefit patients who have had their faces disfigured through accident or illness.
However, leading surgeons in the UK have warned against performing facial transplant surgery without further research. They are concerned about the ethical, legal and moral issues of face transplants, as well as the psychological effect on the patients themselves.
In a recent statement, the president of the Royal College of Surgeons, Sir Peter Morris, said: "Facial transplantation is not only a matter of technical achievement. We must also take into consideration the psychological impact on the recipient and on the donor family."
There are concerns among doctors that giving patients a different face could lead to a loss of identity, which in turn may cause serious emotional confusion. The recipients may also have to deal with mixed reactions from close family and friends.
As well as the psychological impact of face transplants, there are a number of serious health issues. In particular, surgeons estimate that there could be a one in ten chance of immediate rejection of the new tissue by the recipient‘s body. Patients would also have to follow a strict regime of anti-rejection drugs throughout their lives. In addition, they would need to avoid exposure to the sun and would be required to follow a special diet.
In recent weeks there has been much discussion in the media about a “face race” in which doctors from different countries are planning to perform the first operation. Surgeons from countries as far apart as China, Colombia, the UK and the US are said to be working towards the first face transplant.
However, such a race has been hotly denied by the surgeons themselves. One leading transplant expert, John Barker, from Louisville University in the US, claimed that the whole idea of a “face race” had been invented by the media. "If I were in a race, I think I should know about it. I don‘t know about it so we are not in a race."
The international “face race” itself may be an invention of the media who are keen to dramatize this new development in modern medicine. Nevertheless, there seems little doubt that the first human face transplant will take place in the near future with a huge blaze of publicity for both the surgeons and the patient.
A. Read the article. Decide if these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
  1. Surgeons recently performed the first face transplant.
  2. Only doctors in the UK have the knowledge to perform face transplants.
  3. Sir Peter Morris thinks the psychological impact of face transplants is important.
  4. Doctors believe face transplants could cause identity problems for patients.
  5. Surgeons say there is a 50 per cent chance that face transplants could be rejected.
  6. Only surgeons in the UK and US are said to be working on face transplants.
  7. John Barker thinks the “face race” is a media invention.
  8. It seems that the first face transplant will happen in the near future.

B. Here are some definitions of words used in the first four paragraphs of the text. Find the words they describe.
  1. a medical operation in which a damaged organ, etc. is replaced with one from another person
  2. to spoil the appearance of a person, thing or place
  3. a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it
  4. connected with the law
  5. a formal or official account of facts or opinions
  6. a feeling of worry, especially one that is shared by many people

From: http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/oald/newsreader/facetrans/

English III Homework 8B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

Campus Life in the United States

For many years in the United States, most undergraduate students ( in ( 1 ) their fist four years of college ) were eighteen to twenty-two years old. ( 2 ) They attended college full-time, lived in a dormitory on campus, and expected many “extras” from (3)their colleges, not just classes. But things began to change in the 1970s and are very different now. Today, these “traditional” students are less than one quarter ( 1 / 4 ) of all college students. These days the nontraditional students are the majority;( 4 ) they are different from traditional undergraduates in several ways.( 5 ) They are older.( 6 )Many attend college part-time because ( 7 ) they have families and jobs. ( 8 ) Most live off campus, not in dorms. These nontraditional students don´t want the extras that colleges usually offer. ( 9 ) They aren ´t interested in the sports, entertainment, religious groups, and museums that are part of most U.S. colleges.( 10 ) They want mainly good-quality classes, day or night, at a low cost. ( 11 ) They also hope for easy parking, short registration lines, and polite service. Both time and money are important to ( 12 ) them.

    1. What is the main idea of the paragraph?

    1. Read the text and find the meaning of the following pronouns. What does each pronoun refer to?
  1. their : undergraduate students.
  2. They: _____________________________________
  3. their: _____________________________________
  4. they: _____________________________________
  5. They: _____________________________________
  6. Many: _____________________________________
  7. they: _____________________________________
  8. Most: _____________________________________
  9. They: _____________________________________
  10. They: _____________________________________
  11. They: _____________________________________
  12. them: _____________________________________

English III Homework 9B
NAME : _________________________  DATE : ___________ SCORE: __________
Prof. Cesar Klauer

The reading text is in the Supplementary Activity Book page 8: A city that doing something right .
Read the text and do the exercises. Write your answers in this page.

After you Read ( p. 12 )

5. Understanding the main idea.

1. TRUE                      FALSE
2. TRUE                      FALSE
3. TRUE                      FALSE
4. TRUE                      FALSE
5. TRUE                      FALSE

8. Making inferences.

  1. ________________
  2. ________________
  3. ________________
  4. ________________
  5. ________________
  6. ________________
  7. ________________
  8. ________________
  9. ________________
  10. ________________

  1. Summarizing
1          2          3          4          5

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